The climate of Egypt, a country in north-eastern Africa, is characterized by the scarcity of rainfall and the abundance of sunshine.
Egypt has a mild winter season with rain falling along coastal areas, and a hot and dry summer season (May to September).
In the coastal regions, temperatures range between average winter minimums of 14°C (November to April) and average summer maximums of 30°C (May to October). Temperatures vary widely in the inland desert areas, especially during the summer, where they range from 7°C at night to 43°C during the day.
Have a look to different zones.
The north coast
On the Mediterranean coast (see Alexandria, Marsa Matrouh, Port Said), there’s a very mild, spring-like winter: highs are around 18/20 °C (64/68 °F) and lows around 10 °C (50 °F), though this is the only period of the year when weak or moderate rains occur. Summer is long, muggy and sunny, with highs around 30 °C (86 °F), but tempered by sea breezes. The humidity is high especially in the delta of the Nile River.
The everage temperature of Alexandria, the second city of Egypt, is about 25,3 C° from May to October
Cairo, the capital, is located about 180 kilometers (110 miles) away from the sea, but it’s at the edge of the huge Nile River Delta, so its climate is halfway between the Mediterranean and the desert one. The summer temperatures are lower than in the desert area but higher than on the coast: highs are around 35 °C (95 °F) in July and August, but moisture is quite high, so the heat can be stifling. Summer is long: the maximum temperatures exceed 30 °C (86 °F) from May to mid-October. Within the city, the unpleasant sensation of heat is increased by the so-called “urban heat island effect” which occurs in big cities, and also by pollution.
In the interior, the climate is desert, with virtually no rain; the temperatures increase gradually as you head south. The diurnal temperature range is remarkable because of both clear skies and low humidity. Winters are mild and sunny, but nights are cool to cold, ranging from 7/8 °C (45/46 °F) in the central area (see Luxor) to 10/11 °C in the southern area (see Aswan), though the temperature in the coldest nights can approach freezing (0 °C or 32 °F). The winter days are pleasantly mild or warm, about 23/24 °C (73/75 °F) on average. In inland areas, summers are scorchingly hot, with highs ranging from 36/37 °C (97/99 °F) in the center-north to 41/42 °C (106/108 °F) in the south, and during this season, the sun hits hard. In the hottest days, the temperature in the south can reach as high as 48/50 °C (118/122 °F).
Red Sea coasts
To the east, in the Gulf of Suez (see El Tor), and on the coast of the Red Sea (see Hurghada, Marsa Alam), the climate is desert, albeit slightly tempered by the sea. The rainfall is very scarce or totally absent as in the interior, but the temperature range is lower and the humidity is generally higher. The days in summer are very hot, with maximum temperatures around 35 °C (95 °F) or more, with some days a little less hot but more sultry and others torrid, that is, very hot and with lower humidity.
During winter, the temperature on the coast is very mild: in the northern part, highs hover around 21/22 °C (70/72 °F) and lows remain around 10/12 °C (50/54 °F), while the southern part is slightly warmer.
Due to these temperature, different industrial and commercial companies in Cairo and Alexandria are using Italfog system (fog systems) to reduce temperature in their sites. See projects for shopping center and livestock.
For more information about Italfog as distributor of misting fog systems contact Italfog referent in Cairo city connecting to Italfog form on this website.